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Asia Noise News Building Acoustics Environment Industrial Vibration

Building Vibration Limits in Indonesia

A lot of activities and businesses have the potential to have negative effects to their environment because of the vibration that they produce. For example, construction (for example during piling), mining and and other vibration-generating activities. This vibration can disturb the comfort and health of people around it, and even can have destructive effects to nearby buildings.

In Indonesia, the vibration limit is regulated through Ministerial Decree of Ministry of Environment No. 49 Year 1996. This regulation was made to ensure healthy environment for human and other living creatures to live in. Consequently, the vibration generated from human activities need to be regulated.

In this regulation, businesses and activities are required to:

  1. Comply to the vibration limit in the decree. This is required for businesses and activities to obtain certain relevant permits to be able to operate.
  2. Use vibration reduction equipment
  3. Report vibration monitoring activities at least once in 3 (three) months to the Governor, Minister, Government agencies that are responsible to control environmental impact, other technical institutions that is responsible for the activities and other organizations that might need the vibration monitoring report.

The vibration limit is separated into few parts which are:

  1. Vibration limits for health and comfort
  2. Mechanical vibration limits based on its destructive effects
  3. Mechanical vibration limits based on building types
  4. Shock limits

The following table and graphs is the vibration limit for health and comfort:

Conversion:

Acceleration = (2πf)2 x displacement

Velocity = 2πf x displacement

The graphic representation of the table above is as follows:

The table below is the vibration limits based on the destructive effects:

As seen above, the peak velocity limit from the vibration is separated into 4 categories which are:

  • Category A: non-destructive
  • Category B: Possibly destructive for plastering (crack, or in certain cases the plaster can fell off the wall) 
  • Category C: Possibly destructive for structural components that bear loads
  • Category D: High risk of destruction of load bearing walls

The following graph is the vibration limit based on destructive effects in a graphical form:

Mechanical vibration limit can also be categorized into the types of buildings. The buildings are categorized into 3 which are:

  1. Buildings for commercial, industrial, and other similar use.
  2. Residential and other buildings with similar design and usage
  3. Structures that are sensitive to vibration and cannot be categorized into category 1 and 2, for example preserved buildings with high cultural value

Below is the vibration limits for the building category above:

The table below is shock limit for buildings:

CategoryBuilding TypeMaximum velocity (mm/s)
1Old buildings with high historical value2
2Buildings with existing defects, cracks can be seen on the walls5
3Buildings with good condition, minor cracks on plaster is acceptable10
4Buildings with high structural strength (for example industrial building which is made from concrete and steel)10 – 40

The ministerial decree also describe the measurement and analysis method for vibration as follows:

  1. Instruments:
    1. Vibration transducer (Accelerometer or seismometer)
    2. Vibration measurement device or analysis device (Vibration meter or vibration analyzer)
    3. 1/3 octave or narrow band filter
    4. Signal recorder
    5. FFT Analyzer
  2. Measurement procedure:
    1. Vibration measurement related with health and comfort:
      • Place transducer on the floor or other vibrating surface, and connect it to the measuring device with filtration
      • Set the measuring instruments to measure displacement. If the measuring instruments do not have that on display, the conversion from acceleration or velocity can be used
      • Reading and recording is conducted for frequency between 4-63 Hz or with signal recording device
      • Measurement results with at least 13 data shall be plotted on graph
    2. Vibration measurement for structural health:
      • The measurement method is similar with the vibration measurement above, however the physical measure that is assessed is the peak velocity.
    3. Evaluation
      • The 13 data which are plotted on graph shall be compared with the vibration limits. The vibration is considered above the limit if the vibration level exceeds the limit at any frequency.

Definition

The definition used in the regulation of ministry of environment No 49 Year 1996 is as follows:

  1. Building structure is a part of building that is planned, calculated, and functioned to:
    • Support any kind of load (static load, dynamic load, and temporary load)
    • Functioned for building’s stability as a whole. For example: frame and bearing wall
  2. Structure’s component is a part of a building structure that contributes to structure’s function. For example: beams, columns, and slab.
  3. Bearing wall is a building structure which is a vertical plane that is functioned to support loads on top of it such as slab or roof.
  4. Non-structure components are parts of building that is not planned or functioned to support load. For example partition walls, door and window frames, etc.

Destructive impact on structure and non-structure:

  1. Destructive impact on structure: Destructive impacts that can endanger building stability (for example destruction of columns that potentially make a building collapses)
  2. Destructive impact on non-structure: Not dangerous to building stability, but can be a danger for building occupants (for example: when a partition wall collapses, it will not make the building collapse, but can injure occupants)

Degree of building destruction:

  1. Light: not dangerous for building stability and can be fixed without reducing building’s strength
  2. Moderate: Destruction that can reduce structural strength. To fix this, added reinforcement must be used.
  3. Severe: Degree of destruction that can endanger the building and potentially makes the building collapses.

Written by:

Hizkia Natanael
Acoustic Engineer
Phone: +6221 5010 5025
Email: hizkia@geonoise.asia

Categories
Asia Noise News Building Accoustics

Noise and Vibration Monitoring for Construction Sites

In a densely populated city like Bangkok, most of the construction projects are surrounded by condominiums, offices or residential areas. The construction sites must control the noise and vibration that may affect the surroundings. Construction sites need to control the noise and vibration levels that they produce following the EIA standard.

To manage this, noise and vibration instruments are installed which automatically will send alarms to the construction company if the thresholds are exceeded.

Noise Monitoring Station

Sound level meter class 2 according to IEC61672-1 standard which can collect the data of SPL, LEQ and LMAX. These instruments are calibrated before they are installed at a construction site. The system has a LED display and warning light when noise levels in the site are over a trigger level, which is referred to in the standards for maximum sound levels around construction sites.

According to the announcement of National Environment Board no.15 BE.2540 (1997) in the topic of “Standard loudness”, the average sound 24 hour must not exceed 70 dBA and the maximum peak level must not exceed 115 dBA.

Sound level meter are designed to be used outdoors and an additional LED display was added by Geonoise which is a professional sound and vibration company. Sound level meter with LED display also can analyse the loudness in percentile (Statistical,Ln) or analyse the frequencies in 1/1 and 1/3 octave bands. In addition to storing vibration data, you can also create level notifications in Alarm Alert format before vibration levels exceed the standard value for monitoring the activities being performed.

Vibration Monitoring

In the construction industry, transportation Industry and most large industries vibrations will occur.
High vibration levels will cause structural damage to buildings, bridges, structures as well as nuisance or health risks to occupants in exposed (residential) buildings.

Therefore, it is necessary to comply with the standard of vibration in a building according to the Announcement of the National Environment Board Announcement No. 37, BE 2553 (2010) Re: Determination of Standard Vibration to Prevent Impact on Buildings and the measuring instruments need to comply with DIN45699-1.

At construction projects in Bangkok, most cause a lot of unwanted noise and vibrations. Vibration caused by construction projects are caused by piling work as well as the increased traffic of large trucks that enter and exit the construction site. To prevent that vibration levels will be exceeded, a vibration monitoring system will have to be installed.

The Announcement of the National Environment Board No. 37, BE 2553 Vibration standards to prevent impacts on buildings is the main regulation to comply with for construction sites in Thailand. The vibration standards are derived from DIN 4150-3 whereas buildings are classified into 3 types.

Building types according to DIN 4150-3:

  • Type 1 buildings such as commercial buildings, public buildings, large buildings, etc.
  • Type 2 buildings such as residential buildings, dormitories, hospitals, educational institutions, etc.
  • Type 3 buildings, such as archaeological sites or buildings that cultural values but not strong, etc.

In addition to storing vibration data, you can also create level notifications in Alarm Alert format before vibration level exceed the standard value for monitoring the activities being performed.

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Noise and Vibration Product News

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